Top 10 Most Handsome Hollywood Male Stars(2018)

1. Leonardo DiCaprio

Leonardo DiCaprio was born on November 11, 1974 in Los Angeles, California, USA as an American film actor and producer. In 1990, at the age of 16, he took part in the shooting of the drama “Growing Pains.” In 1993, he won the 66th Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor Award and the 51st American Film and TV Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in The Different Sky. In 1995, the film “Romeo and Juliet” was filmed and won the Best Actor in the 47th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1997, Leonardo starred in “Titanic.”

2. Will Smith

Willard Christopher Smith, Jr., was born on September 25, 1968 in Philadelphia, USA. He was an Hollywood actor and hip hop singer. At the age of 12, he entered the entertainment circle as a rap singer. In 1985, he composed DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince with Jeff Tongnes and then won the Grammy Award twice. In 1993, Will Smith began the big screen, starring in the film “Six Degrees of Separation.” Then works such as “The Jedi Warrior” and “Independence Day” made him gradually establish the position of the film. The “Black Men” series launched in 1997

3. Tom Hanks

Tom Hanks was born on July 9, 1956 in Concord, California, USA as a film and television actor. In 1979, Hanks played the role for the first time in the movie “Red Splatter”, which was released in 1980. In 1984, the performance “Mermaid” made him popular. In 1988, he led the “Fly to the Future,” and won the Academy Award for Best Actor Nomination. In 1993, he starred in the “Philadelphia Story” and won the Academy Award for Best Actor. In 1994, the performance in the film “Forrest Gump” made Hanks win the Oscar for Best Actor. In 1995, he began to dub the voice of Hudi, one of the protagonists of Toy Story.

4. Jason Statham

Jason Michael Statham was born on July 26, 1967 in London, England. He was an English actor, model, and diver. He has played in the UK national diving team for 12 years and won the 12th in the world diving championship in 1992. In 1998, he appeared in the first film “Two Great Smoke Guns” and entered the entertainment circle. In 2002, he appeared in the movie ” “Very Human Traffickers”; in 2009, he starred in “Anger Attack 2: High Volt”; in 2012, he starred in the movie “Death Squad 2”; in 2013, he transformed into a movie “Redemption”; in 2015, he starred in the movie “Speed and Passion 7 In 2016, she starred in the Chinese-American co-production movie Megashark.

5. Chris Evans

Chris Evans was born on June 13, 1981 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. In 2001, he appeared in his personal first film, “Children are not suitable.” In 2004, he appeared in the campus comedy “Super Perfection.” In 2011, he starred in the film “Captain America” and in the same year, he appeared in the love light comedy “Extremely Ex-Boyfriend” and the legal movie “Perforation.” In 2012, he once again played the role of Captain America Steve Rogers in the “Avengers’ League”. In the same year, he participated in the film “Snow Country Train” and “Iceman”. In the same year, he was nominated for the 38th Saturn Award for Best Actor. . In 2014, he directed, produced and starred in the movie “Midnight.”

6, Van Dissel

Van Diesel (Vin Diesel) was born on July 18, 1967 in New York, USA. He is an American film actor and producer. In 1999, the self-produced short film acted as an actor to win the Cannes Film Festival Award, and was received by the great director Steven Spielberg for his participation in the war film “Saving Private Ryan.” After starring in the “Speed and Passion” series of films became a Hollywood star. In 2005, he appeared in the comedy “The Brave Father”. The “Speed and Passion” starring in 2009 was released. The “Speed and Passion 5” starring in 2011 was released. In May 2013, Deere’s “Speed and Passion 6” was released in the United States. In December of the same year, Diesel decided to join the “Guardians of the Galaxy” and played “Growing Groot”.

7. Sylvester Stallone

Sylvester Stallone, born in the United States in 1946, was an American actor, painter, director, and producer. In 1970, he appeared in the first film “Italian Stallion”. In 1977, he won the 49th Oscar and the 34th American Golden Globe Award for Best Actor and Best Screenplay for the film “Rocky”. In 1978, he wrote and directed the film. He performed his first movie, “The Lane of the Lane”; in 1982, he starred in “The First Blood”; in 1992, he won the 17th Honorary Caesar Award; in 2000, he starred in the action movie “Killing and Killing”; in 2009, he wrote and directed himself. The action movie “Death Squad”; 2015, starring in the movie “Quidi”.

8, Nicholas Cage

Nicolas Cage was born on January 7, 1964 in California, USA. In 1982, he starred in the first film “The Open American Academy”; in 1984, he starred in the film “The Bird Man”; in 1988, he starred in “The Vampire Kiss”; in 1992, with the performance in the film “My Heart”, Won the Palme d’Or Grand Prix at the 43rd Cannes Film Festival; In 1996, he starred in the action movie “Courageously Lost Life Island”; In the same year, he won the 68th Academy Awards for Best Actor in 2002 for his “Away From the Casino”; 2002 He directed the debut of “Sonny” and starred in the movie “National Treasure” in 2004.

9, Adrian Brodie

Adrien Brody, born April 14, 1973 in New York, USA, determined to become an actor since childhood. In 1993, the famous Dr. Steven Soderberger’s drama “King of the Hill” won attention and got the opportunity. In 1998, he starred director Eric Bros’s “Restaurant” and used it as a nominee for the “Best Actor for the Independent Spirit Award.” In 2003, he starred in the role of “Pianist” directed by Roman Polanski. He played a Jewish pianist in the film and won several awards such as the 75th Academy Award for best actor. In 2008, Beyonce Knowles starred in the movie “The Legend of Blues.”

10, Jude Luo

Jude Lowe was born on December 29, 1972 in London, England, and was an English actor, producer, and director. At the age of 12, he began to participate in the performance of a young musical troupe. He dropped out of high school at the age of 17 and devoted himself to the performing arts circle. In 1990, he appeared in the TV series “Family”. In 1994, he starred in the first movie “Shopping.” In 1999, he starred in the movie “Genius Ripley” directed by Anthony Mingera and won the 72nd Academy Award for best supporting actor nomination. In 2001, he starred in the war films Bing Under City and Steven Spielberg’s science-fiction film “Artificial Intelligence.” In 2004, he was nominated for the Best Actor in the 76th Academy Awards for his film Cold Mountain.

11. Keanu Reeves

Keanu Reeves was born on September 2, 1964 in Beirut, Lebanon. He was an American actor, producer, and director. In 1980, at the age of 16, he entered the show circle with a Coca-Cola ad, and he received his first role in the play “The Wolfboy.” In 1995, he won the MTV Movie Award for the best “screen partner” for his movie “Life and Death Speed” in collaboration with Sandra Bullock. In 2012, Keanu Reeves made a film debut in the Chinese film “Taichi.” In 2013, he directed “Taichi” and starred in “47 Ronin”. In February 2015, he participated in “The Devil’s Head”.

12, Gary Oldman

Gary Leonard Oldman was born on March 21, 1958 in New Cross (South London), formerly known as Leonard Gary Oldman, an English actor. In 1986, he starred in the movie “Sid and Nanxun.” In 1991, he played Lee Harvey Oswaldo in the movie JFK. In 1992, Count Dracula was played in “The Vampirism Zombies Frightened Four Hundred Years.” In 2011, he was nominated for Best Oscar by Oscar for “The Potter, Tailor, Soldier, and Spy.” In March 2016, he starred in the movie “Killer’s Bodyguard.”

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The world’s top 10 schools

1. Harvard University

Harvard University, Harvard for short, is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts and is a world-renowned private research university and a member of the famous Ivy League University. There are 8 Presidents of the United States of America, and hundreds of Nobel Prize winners have worked and studied here. They have high academic standing and extensive influence in many fields such as literature, medicine, law, and business studies. It is one of the most advanced institutions of higher education in the world today.

Harvard is also home to the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Originally founded in 1636, Harvard was first founded by the Massachusetts colonial legislature and was first named New Citizen College in honor of Pastor John Harvard, who gave generous support to the institute during its inception. The school was renamed Harvard College in March 1639. In 1780, Harvard College was officially renamed Harvard University.

Harvard University is the first university in the United States and is a member of the Ivy League. A large number of revolutionary pioneers since the American Revolutionary War came from Harvard. Harvard University is known as the U.S. government’s think tank. Harvard University had eight American presidents and dozens of Nobel Prize winners and Pulitzer Prize winners. In addition, a large number of well-known academic founders, world-class academic leaders, writers, and thinkers, such as Norbert Dana, Ralph Emerson, Henry Thoreau, and Henry James, have also been trained. Charles Peirce, Robert Frost, William James, Jerome Bruner, George Mayo, etc.; Famous diplomats, former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Mongolian current President Chachia Elbegdorj is also from Harvard. Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates are the school’s prestigious students.

All of Harvard’s undergraduate professional education levels are among the top in the world.

The richness of Harvard’s teaching resources is astounding. The school has 70 independent libraries, 3000 acres of forest research stations, 12 teaching museums, 265 acres of botanical gardens, 24 scientific research school buildings, multiple theaters and arenas, 41 sports teams, 450 student clubs… …!

2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), known as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), is a world-renowned private research university located in Cambridge, Mass. (Greater Boston Area). The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was founded in 1861. After the Second World War, MIT rapidly emerged from the needs of the US defense science and technology research. During World War II and the Cold War, MIT researchers were working on computers, radar, and Scientific developments such as inertial navigation systems have made important contributions.

MIT is renowned for its cutting-edge engineering and computer science, with the MIT Lincoln Lab and the MIT Media Lab, and ranked in the 2016-17 World University Rankings (ARWU) Engineering. The world’s No. 1 and Computer Science No. 2. Together with Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley, it is also known as the academic leader of the engineering science community. As of 2016, MIT alumni, faculty, staff, and researchers generated a total of 85 Nobel Prize winners (World No. 6), 6 Fields Prize winners (No. 10 in the world), and 21-digit charts. Spirit Award winner (world 2nd).

In 2016-17, MIT ranks first in the world in QS World University, second in usnews World University Rankings (US News), fifth in world rankings (ARWU), and fifth in the world by Times Higher Education World University. In terms of specific disciplines, the life sciences of MIT ranks among the top 3 in the world (ARWU), 5th in basic sciences (4th in physics, 6th in chemistry, 12th in mathematics), and economics and social sciences.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a comprehensive private university in the United States located in Cambridge, Mass. (Greater Boston Area). The Charles River connects it to Boston’s Back Bay. Separated.

MIT was founded in 1861 by William Baton Rogers, a famous natural science graduate who graduated from the old and famous Southern College of William and Mary. He hoped to create a free college to cater to the United States in a period of rapid development. Due to the Civil War, it was not until 1865 that MIT ushered in the first students, and then it quickly developed in the fields of nature and engineering. During the Great Depression, MIT was once considered to be merging with Harvard University, but under the protest of the school students, it was forced to cancel this plan.

In terms of name, MIT’s correct translation name should be “Massachusetts Institute of Technology”, because the translation of MIT from the Qing Dynasty, the descendants are still used today. In North America, the Institute refers to institutions of higher learning such as engineering, engineering, technology, technology, or specialties.

The Chinese name of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) should be translated into “Massachusetts University of Technology” according to the academic scale and overall strength of its school’s faculties, but people have long been accustomed to calling it MIT. It is worth noting that some people will mix Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Massachusetts. In fact, these are two completely different universities. University of Massachusetts is the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and is a large, multi-campus public university in Massachusetts.

Just two days after the draft was approved, the first battle of the American Civil War began. The war for several years delayed the teaching and research work of the school. In 1865, MIT formally opened its campus in Boston. The mission of this new institution is in line with the requirements of the Land Appropriation Bill. Therefore, it is granted a place for further development. In 1866, the benefits from land sales enabled the school to develop in the Back Bay area.

Boston Polytechnic is an informal nickname for MIT. The university uses the model of the European University of Technology to run schools, and early emphasis is placed on experimental teaching. Although it has been plagued by financial problems, under the leadership of Frances Yamasas Walker, the school continued to grow in the last 20 years of the 19th century, and then opened electronic, chemical, marine, and clean engineering, and built The new teaching building also attracts more students.

University courses have gradually become career-oriented and teaching content has lost some theoretical science. However, this young institution still faces financial crisis and is concerned by management. During the “Boston Polytechnic” years, Charles Eliot, the school’s former faculty member and then president of Harvard University, once suggested that MIT be incorporated into the Lawrence Academy of Law at Harvard College at that time.

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in the narrow Back Bay area, was unable to afford further campus expansion costs, while the number of students continued to rise, making it increasingly crowded. The school urgently needs funds or donations to maintain normal operation. In the end, the school accepted the invitation to merge with Harvard under the strong opposition of teachers, students and alumni. However, in 1917, the Supreme Court of Massachusetts banned the move with anti-universal monopoly and ended the “merging storm”.

In 1916, MIT moved to the shores of the Charles River, Cambridge, near Harvard University, and the coast stretched more than a mile (1.6 km). This is reclaimed land. This “New Polytechnic” campus full of neoclassical architectural styles was designed by architect William W. Bosworth and benefited from the donation of an anonymous “good-hearted person”. This gentleman has been advising him since 1912. The school provides funding. In January 1920, the identity of the “good-hearted person” was exposed – it was George Eastman, an industrialist from Rochester, New York. He invented a new film production and editing method and established Eastman Kodak Company. From 1912 to 1920, Eastman provided $20 million (now worth more than 230 million) in cash and Kodak’s stock to MIT.

3. Cambridge University

Cambridge University (English: University of Cambridge) is located in Cambridge, United Kingdom, is a prestigious world-class research institute, a federal university, and Oxford University, University College London, Imperial College, London political economy The college belongs to the “G5 Super Elite University”.

Cambridge University is one of the UK’s oldest institutions of higher learning. The school was formerly a scholars’ association founded in 1209 and is the second oldest university in the English-speaking world.

In the 800-year history of the school, Newton, Darwin, and a group of scientific masters who lead the times have emerged; they have created Bacon, Keynes and other scholars who have made outstanding contributions; they have cultivated Milton, Byron, and other artists who created an era. There are 8 British Prime Ministers, 92 Nobel Prize winners, and 4 Fields Prize winners have been teachers, students, alumni or researchers of this school. All of these have laid the foundation for the University of Cambridge’s modern academic and cultural center. It has a lofty academic position and extensive influence in many fields such as mathematics, physics, medicine, law, and business, and it is recognized as one of the world’s top institutions of higher education.

Cambridge University is a member of several academic consortia. It is also part of the “Golden Triangle School of Excellence” and Cambridge University Medical Partner Union, and is closely related to the development of silicon marsh in the industrial cluster.[3] The school has a total of eight museums of arts and sciences, and has a collection of more than 15 million library systems and the world’s oldest Cambridge University Press.

On June 14, 2017, The Times Higher Education in the UK announced the 2017 World University Rankings, and Cambridge University ranked fourth.

Founded in 1209 AD, Cambridge University was first established by a group of teachers who escaped from the University of Oxford to escape the battle.

In the twelfth century, Franciscan monks, Benedictine monks, and clergymen settled in this flat, wet swamp area, and Cambridgeshire was born.

In 1209, two scholastic philosophers at Oxford University were accused of murdering a prostitute and the Oxfordshire court sentenced them to hang. In order to protest, Oxford teachers stopped teaching for some time and left. Some of them arrived in Cambridgeshire and founded Cambridge University.

Around 1225, Cambridge’s teachers selected a principal from among them. His power was approved by King Henry III, and the autonomous management of the university came from it. Soon afterwards, in 1233, Pope Gregory IX also approved, this kind of church privilege Oxford did not enjoy until 1254, and the decree of Henry III and his heirs ensured the monopoly position of these two universities. Until the 19th century, Oxford and Cambridge were the only universities in Britain for a full six hundred years. No other place in Europe has such a monopoly. Like Oxford, this university in Cambridge did not have its own house. They lecture and live in rented houses, wherever there is a place. College students lived in the hostel from the very beginning, and the shop owner supervised them.

In 1231, King Henry III granted Cambridge a monopoly on teaching.

In 1280, before the private lodge was replaced by a college with its own school buildings and donations, there were already 34 such university student apartments in the city. Donations ensured the sustainability and independence of the college.

In 1284, Bishop Hugh de Balsham of Elyssa Abbey founded Peter Haus College, the first college in Cambridge. Until the College had a charter, it followed the model of Oxford’s 20-year-old Bishop’s College, the Merton College. Cambridge graduates have had the best job opportunities ever since, especially in the plague that killed nearly one-third of the population in England from 1347 to 1348, to highly educated pastors, administrators, jurists, and doctors. The demand has increased.

Around 1370 Cambridge had eight colleges and about 20 hostels. The entire university has nearly 700 people. The founders of Cambridge’s early colleges were definitely not just church members. Including the king and their women, the wife of the upper aristocracy such as Elizabeth De Claire and Countess Pembroke, there are quite few state officials, businessmen, and bishops. The Guardian of Christ’s Eucharistic College is the most special. It is the only college in Cambridge (and Oxford) founded by two guilds of the city. During this period, the University built its first building of its own, with classrooms and meeting rooms. , the library and the old school building that manages the building (1350-1475). Other colleges are centered on the core of these colleges: Clair College, Trinity School, and Gonville School.

Before and after 1500, there were more than a dozen colleges in Cambridge. Most of them were located between High Street and Jianhe. In the south, they were already located at Peterhaus College near the Transampton Gate outside the city walls, and then they went to Trinity College and St. The seat of John’s College. When humanistic thoughts also spread with printing. The most outstanding representative of this great rejuvenation movement of the classical spirit in Europe is Erasmus from Rotterdam.

From 1511 to 1514 he lived in the Queen’s College where he taught theology and Greek, writing, translating, publishing, and communicating. He had an unparalleled energy and elegant style of writing. Erasmus is not just a evangelist for Cambridge. The original data study replaced the medieval scholastic philosophy. The focus shifts from theology to eloquence, from cultivating priests to the building of educated nations. Since then, ancient languages ​​and literature have long played an important role in the teaching of British universities. The Cambridge humanists’ interest in Greek and Hebrew brought collated versions of biblical and ancient religious writings. This is also a hotbed of reform. The man who summoned Imams to Cambridge was his friend John Fisher, who played a key role in this development. The humanitarian teaching program has enabled Cambridge University to become a European-level university within a few years, first and foremost at the same level as Oxford. Although Henry VIII himself never had a special interest in Cambridge, he donated five royal family seats to the university. This is a contradiction between the times and its flame-like king. In this era of breakthrough, the royal family needed Oxford and Cambridge to serve as reliable administrators, jurists, and priests’ reserve rooms to serve as the government’s academic backbone. Therefore, Henry VIII himself eventually founded a college in 1546, merging two older colleges into a larger new college that exceeds all the colleges so far – Trinity College, which is not just a nobleman. Freedom sign. So far it is still the only college in Cambridge not elected by the academician, but the royal family appointed by the Prime Minister on the proposal of the Prime Minister.

When James I stayed at Trinity College in 1614, smoking was prohibited throughout the college because it was well known that the king hated smoking. For the sake of his pastime, the teachers arranged a philosophical play, a debate on the issue of whether or not the dogs were syllogistic. Finally concluded that dogs can not think. The monarch heard that his dog was the exception. Teachers shouted loudly. There is no doubt that Cambridge is a spiritually active place full of theological and political debates. It is not only the young Milton that has benefited greatly. At Sydney Sussex College, student Oliver Cromwell came into contact with Calvinism. In 1640 he was elected to the Parliament on behalf of Cambridge with a one-vote advantage – “The only vote that destroyed the church It also destroyed the kingdom,” said John Cleveland, an academician and poet of St John’s College.
In 1643 Cromwell returned, turning the college into a barracks and turning Cambridge into the headquarters of the East Anglia Legislature. Most of the presidents lost their official positions, and half of the academicians, a total of more than 200 were fired. After the restoration of the monarchy, the unified behavior restored the old British regulations. The darling of the royal family was assigned to serve as the university president. During this period, it was not only the Platonists of Cambridge, a free religious philosophical organization that could dedicate themselves to the study and teaching of Descartes. “Theory is the candlelight of the Lord.” A new religion – natural sciences. After the establishment of the London Royal Club (1660), professors of mathematics, chemistry and astronomy were established. The star of Isaac Newton shined above Cambridge.

In the 18th century, the royal family and the parliament further took the initiative of university management. Teachers and students do what they want to do most: study, enjoyment. Around 1800, the reputation of Cambridge (and Oxford) was compromised. Two other universities surpassed them, especially in the natural sciences: the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and the University of Göttingen in Germany. It was founded by George II and soon became the most famous university in Hanover. In addition, there were competitors in England for the first time. At Durham University (1832) and London University (1836), Niu Jian lost its monopoly position. At the same time, the number of college students is rising. The middle class of the developed bourgeoisie needs new training venues. In the increasingly industrialized and commercialized society of the Victorian dynasty, Cambridge also felt it necessary to help and should be reformed. A Coburg-Prince Prince and Queen Victoria’s husband Albert promoted this reform.
In 1847, Cambridge University chose the unpopular German as president with a small majority. In 1871, another law ended discrimination against non-British nationalists. In 1861, people noticed the first married teacher, which shows that Cambridge University gradually deviated from the Middle Ages. Before 1860, the university officially abolished the regulations prohibiting the marriage of academicians. Since the colleges had the right to decide this matter on their own, it was not until 1880 that the academicians’ desire to marry was successful. This brought Cambridge a small prosperous building and baby.

In 1870, the then university president, William Cavendish, and the seventh-generation Duke of Devon, funded an experimental physics professor’s seat and a laboratory, both of whom were one of his ancestors and physics. Named after the surname of Henry Cavendish. That is the beginning of the brilliant development of the natural sciences. In the 19th century, Cambridge’s population increased fourfold and the number of residents reached nearly 50,000. Forever young, charming Rupert Brook’s spirit, beauty and wise men gathered around him, a world of pistol competitions, the May Day rally and the Blurrelli liqueur. Between the two World Wars, Cambridge was a place of happiness, elegance and intellectual controversy. Representatives were Bertrand Russell, Maynard Keynes, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Philosophy, economics and natural sciences are well-developed, and debate associations such as the Student Drama and Moral Science Club Helletis or the most upscale apostle club in all clubs are also thriving. The advent of Hitler made these arguments a bloody reality. Virginia Wolf’s nephew Julian Bell and his friend John Conford belonged to young Cambridge volunteers who were killed in the Spanish Civil War. The book contained “Capital”.

After 1933, many college students and teachers felt that Marxism was the only admirable choice. The academician and historian Eric Hobsbawm of King’s College even remained a member of the Communist Party until 1990. The University Aid Committee was an aid organization that began work in 1933. At that time, with its help, the exiled natural sciences first found a sanctuary in Cambridge, among them the Vienna chemist Max Perutz, who was established in 1947. The world-renowned molecular biology laboratory. Because of his life-long career and research on hemoglobin, Perutz won the Nobel Prize in 1962 together with his colleague John Kendrow. Today, Cambridge University has a total of 31 independent autonomous colleges with approximately 19,000 students. Some of the new colleges are purely graduate schools: Darwin College, Wolfson College, and Claire School. This development began with the creation of a new university library in 1934 and by the end of the 20th century a new campus had appeared in the west of the city.

In 2009, Cambridge University held a grand celebration to commemorate the 800th anniversary of its founding.

In 2015, Cambridge University was invited to attend the China International Education Exhibition.

4. University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley, or Berkeley, is abbreviated in Berkeley, San Francisco Bay Area. It is a world-renowned public research university and has a high reputation in academia. It ranks third in the academic ranking of ARWU World University in 2016. Usnews World University ranks fourth in the world.

Berkeley is the founding campus of the University of California, and is one of the most liberal and inclusive universities in the United States. The “Freedom of Speech Movement” initiated by the students in 1964 has had a profound influence in American society and changed several generations of political and moral the opinion of. Berkeley is also one of the world’s most important research and teaching centers. ARWU ranks No. 1 in the world in terms of science, engineering, and computing, and is ranked in the top 5 in the humanities and social sciences for a long time. Together with Stanford University in San Francisco’s South Bay, it constitutes The academic center of the western United States.

As of 2016, there are 91 Nobel Laureates (fourth in the world), 13 Fields winners (fifth in the world), and 23 Turing Award winners (World No. 1) among Berkeley stakeholders. The master mathematician Chen Shengshen established the National Institute of Mathematical Sciences in the United States; the father of the atomic bomb, Oppenheimer and others, led the creation of the first human atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb; Ernest, Nobel Prize winner in physics. Lawrence invented the cyclotron and established the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, one of the top national laboratories in the United States. The Nobel Prize-winning chemical scientist, West Berger, discovered sixteen chemical elements that were far ahead in the world. The 97th element “Berkelium” is also named after “Berkeley”. In the field of engineering and computing, Berkeley has trained a large number of talents for the Silicon Valley in South Bay, including Intel founders Gordon Moore and Andy Grove. Apple founder Steve Wozniak. The big writer Jack London and Zhang Ailing had studied here, and the current Fed Chairperson Yellen is also a professor.

The University of California, Berkeley, has reached the top level of research in the world. In 2016, it has 1,642 full-time and more than 600 part-time faculty and staff members, distributed in major departments. Berkeley has a lofty academic reputation worldwide and has many world-class academic masters in more than 100 sub-disciplines. Nobel Laureate, who has worked and studied at Berkeley, has no less than 91 (8 active professors). The number of Nobel Laureates is No. 4 in the world, including 33 alumni. At the same time, from Berkeley, there were 23 Turing Award winners (including 3 on-job professors), ranked first in the world, and 13 Fields winners (including 3 on-job professors), ranking fifth in the world. In addition, Professor Berkeley has 149 academicians of the National Academy of Sciences, 76 academicians of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, 235 academicians of the U.S. Academy of Arts and Sciences, 4 Pulitzer Prize winners, 15 U.S. National Science Medalists, and 33 MacArthur Genius Award winners. 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Prize winners and 125 Sloan Research Prize winners.

Ranked by the world’s leading universities in world academic rankings, Berkeley has been standing in the top four of world academic research with Harvard University, Stanford University, and others. In 2010, Berkeley ranked second in the world university’s academic rankings, second only to Harvard University. In the academic rankings of world universities in 2014-15 and 2015-16, Berkeley ranked first in the world in physics and chemistry, and ranked first in the world in natural science comprehensive rankings; rankings in computer and engineering in 2015-16. The world’s third, mathematics, and economics ranked fourth in the world. In addition, Berkeley’s postgraduate education has always been regarded as the most advanced level in the United States. Its outstanding talents cultivated every year have made outstanding contributions to American society over the past 100 years. At the same time, it has also cultivated many international talents for the world. Worldwide. The graduate school received the National Science Foundation (NSF) Scholarship (Fellowship) for the highest number of graduate students in the United States (second and third are MIT and Stanford respectively), and also holds many famous prize winners (such as 137 Fulbright Scholarships). Winner).

Berkeley’s professors, researchers, students, and alumni led the Manhattan project, built the first atomic bomb (“Father of the Atomic Bomb” Oppenheimer) and the first hydrogen bomb (“Father of hydrogen bomb” Edward Taylor), invented Lasers, discovery of dark energy, inventing cyclotrons, inventing bubble chambers, discovery of at least 16 chemical elements, discovery of heavy hydrogen “germanium”, discovery of carbon 14, inventation of carbon-14 dating, resolution of photosynthetic Effects (Calvin Cycles) [68-69], discovery of vitamin E, discovery of streptomycin, inventing PCR technology, inventing prestress, inventing the mouse, inventing the UNIX system, creating BSD, inventing RSA encryption Law et al. proposed the dinosaur extinction doctrine “Asteroids Impact Theory”, created the Sun Microsystem (Joint founder Bill Joy), proposed Moore’s Law and identified influenza virus for the first time, etc. Berkeley was the first in the United States. The no-fault divorce bill was drafted. The current Fed Chairperson, Janet Yellen, is a professor at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley and has twice won the Outstanding Teaching Award.

5. Stanford University

Stanford University, full name Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford) for short, is located in Palo Alto, south of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The world famous high-tech park Silicon Valley is a world famous private research university. Stanford covers an area of ​​approximately 33 square kilometers (8,180 acres) and is the sixth largest university in the United States.

Academically, Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley in San Francisco’s North Bay formed the academic center of the American West. According to the statistics of relevant agencies, as of 2017, a total of 64 Stanford alumni, professors, or researchers won the Nobel Prize and ranked eighth in the world, and 20 had won the Turing Award (the highest award in the computer industry) and ranked first in the world. Third, another 7 Stanford professors won the Fields Medal (the highest award in mathematics) and ranked ninth in the world. In 2016-17, Stanford University ranked second in the ARWU World University Academic Rankings and QS World University Rankings, ranked third in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and ranked in the usnews World University Rankings. third.

Stanford University has laid a solid foundation for the formation and rise of Silicon Valley, cultivating many high-tech product leaders and entrepreneurial talents, including HP, Google, Yahoo, Nike, Logitech, Tesla. Founders of Automotive, Firefox, Electronic Arts, Sun Microsystems, NVIDIA, Cisco, Silicon Valley Graphics and eBay. In addition, Stanford’s alumni cover 30 wealthy entrepreneurs and 17 space crews, and is also one of the institutions that fosters the largest number of members of the United States Congress. According to the Forbes magazine’s most multibillion-dollar university in 2010, Stanford University ranked second, with 28 billionaires, second only to Harvard.

Stanford University was founded in 1891 by railroad tycoon Leland Stanford and his wife Jane Lathrop Stanford, the then governor and senator of California. The university used them on the eve of the sixteenth birthday (1884). In the name of the son of Lebron Stanford, who died of typhoid fever, the table was commemorated. Leland Stanford once told his wife: “All California children are our children.”

In 1824, Stanford was born into an affluent farmer family and served as Governor of California in 1861. In 1863, he and his wife Jeanne founded the Central Pacific Railway Company and Stanford served as president.

In 1876, Stanford purchased 263 hectares of land in California as a horse-raising ranch. Later, it expanded to 3,237 hectares and became a site for the Stanford University campus. There was a redwood image in Stanford’s logo and sports logo.

In 1884, when his son Aiko Stanford traveled with his parents in Europe, he was infected with typhoid fever and died. When the sad Stanford couple returned to the United States, they decided to save his $20 million savings with him in Palo Alto. 3,561 hectares of land was used to create a university.

On October 1st, 1891, Stanford University held the opening ceremony, when New York newspapers predicted that no one would go to the university in the western part of the barren land: “Professors will lecture in the marble classroom, facing the empty bench,” but On the day of the unveiling of the University, the unexpectedly full-fledged coaching staff had a total of 559 men and women students, two thirds of whom were from outside California.
When Stanford died in his sleep in 1893, his misfortune was not one-sided, and his property was also frozen. In such a difficult situation, Mrs. Stanford did not plan to suspend the school. She did her best to keep the school running until the fund freeze was completely lifted after six years. Mrs. Stanford sold her railroad stock and transferred $11 million to the university board of directors. The crisis at Stanford University finally passed. Principal Jordan said: “The destiny of this university is all about the love of a good lady.”

On May 30, 1894, the school was awarded the title of the first doctor.
On January 25, 1903, the title dedicated to the memorial church.
On February 28, 1905, Jane Lathrop Stanford passed away.
On April 18, 1906, the great earthquake in San Francisco caused a great deal of damage.
On May 23, 1913, school medical institutions were organized.
On April 27, 1917, a school education institution was established.
On April 27, 1917, the Thomas Welton Museum of Art was completed.
On June 20th, 1919, the Hoover War fundraiser (modern warfare, Hoover agency for revolution and peace) was established.
On May 15, 1925, the school organized a school construction project.
On September 30, 1925, business schools began enrollment.
From June 16 to June 20, 1941, the Hoover Tower was built to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the school’s founding.
In 1946 Wallace Stegner founded the Creative Writing Program.
September 1, 1948, School of Biological Sciences, College of Humanities, School of Physical Sciences and Social Sciences
The college merged into the College of Humanities and Sciences.
On November 6, 1948, the professor of physics Felix Bloch became the first Nobel Prize winner at Stanford University.
In 1951, Frederick Terman, Dean of the School of Engineering at Stanford University, decided to set up an industrial park on campus and rent the campus land to high-tech companies of the time. This was considered an instant. This decision not only laid the foundations of Silicon Valley, but also completely changed the pattern of Stanford University. He himself was therefore dubbed the “Father of Silicon Valley.”
In August 1959, plans for the radio telescope “the Dish” began.
On January 1, 1965, the Department of Computer Science was established.
On September 9, 1967, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center was put into use.
In 1985, Stanford was named the first-class university in the United States.
Stanford University night view
Stanford University night view
In 1987, a social ethics teaching project was launched.
On October 17, 1989, the school was severely damaged by the Loma Prieta earthquake.
October 100, 1991 Anniversary Celebration.
On September 1, 1992, Gerhard Casper became the 9th president.
In May 1996, the Stanford Graduate Fraternity Association was announced.
On September 25, 1997, a preparatory course was established.
On May 18, 1998, the Clinical Medical Research Center was established.
In September 1998, the alumni association was incorporated into the school.
In September 1998, the School of Science and Engineering was established.
In September 1998, an online master’s degree course was established.
On May 2, 2001, the Hewlett Foundation donated 400 million U.S. dollars. This is the largest sum of money that the school has received since its establishment.

6. Oxford University

The University of Oxford, referred to as “Oxford”, is located in Oxford, United Kingdom. It is a world-renowned research university with a worldwide reputation as a federal university. It also associates Cambridge University with Niu Jian, with Cambridge University, University College London, and the Empire. The Polytechnic Institute and the London School of Economics and Political Science belong to the “G5 Super Elite University”.

Founded in 1167, Oxford University is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the second oldest institution of higher education in the world. A number of scientific masters who have led the era have emerged and have nurtured a large number of artists and heads of state who have initiated the epoch, including 27 British Prime Ministers, 64 Nobel Prize winners and dozens of world heads of state and political and business leaders. All these have laid the position of the world’s modern academic and cultural center for Oxford University. It has a lofty academic position and extensive influence in many fields such as mathematics, physics, medicine, law, and business, and it is recognized as one of the world’s top institutions of higher education.

The university spirit reflected by Oxford University is that there is an absolute pursuit for excellence. No matter whether it is in teaching or research, it will never be in the status quo and continue to pursue the ultimate.

In September 2016, Thames Higher Education released the 13th edition of the World University Rankings 2016-2017, with Oxford University ranking first.

Oxford is the main city in the Thames Valley, legend is the ancient cattle wading through the land
Party, hence the name Oxford. Oxford has always been the focus of London’s westbound route. As early as 1096, people had already lectured in Oxford.

Before the 12th century, Britain did not have a university. People went to France and other European countries to study.
In 1167, when the King of England quarrelled with the King of France, the British government, with angrily, recalled the British scholars who had been sent to the University of Paris and banned them from going to Paris. Another argument is that Falun Dafa sent Anglo-Scholar scholars back to Britain from Paris University. In any case, these scholars returned from Paris and gathered in Oxford. With the assistance of the Catholic Benedictine Council, they were engaged in the teaching and research of scholastic philosophy. So people began to regard Oxford as a “general school”, which is actually the predecessor of Oxford University. The scholars gathered in Oxford because Henry II built one of his palaces in Oxford at the time. Scholars came here to secure the king’s protection.

At the end of the 12th century, Oxford was known as the “Teacher and Student University.”
In 1201, Oxford had its first principal.

In 1209, after the conflict between Oxford students and townspeople, some Oxford scholars relocated to the northeastern town of Cambridge, founded by the Franciscans, Benedictine Church and the Order of the Holy Trinity, and founded Cambridge University. Since then, the two universities have been competing with each other for quite a long time.

On June 20, 1214, after a consultation with the Pope’s envoy, the university returned to Oxford and obtained a license. The identity of Oxford University was formally determined until a bill passed in 1571.

It was in the Middle Ages that young students with active thoughts, unfathomable lives, and often owed debts inevitably conflicted with local residents. In one of the biggest conflicts, hundreds of students were shot by random arrows. The result of this incident was the King’s repression and sentenced the citizen to compensate Oxford for 500 years.

Many of the colleges that make up Oxford University were founded between the 13th and 16th centuries, and the Christian Church Academy was founded in 1525 by the Cardinal of the Western Han Dynasty as a bishop’s academy. The first half of the tower in Tom’s Garden was built by Lehn in 1682 and is the largest tower in the city.

When the clock was hung in 1648, the college had a total of 101 students, so at 9:05 in the evening (Oxford was 5 minutes slower than Greenwich), 101 bells were knocked on to remind students of the curfew. (From 1963 onwards Implementation).

Merton College is the oldest college in Oxford (1264). Others are: New College (1379), Queen’s College (1695), etc.

During the 17th-century civil war, many battles took place near Oxford. This place was once the headquarters of Charlie I, who was supported by students. When the royalists were forced to flee from Oxford, Cromwell declared himself as the university’s principal.
In the 2001-2002 academic year, the total number of students studying at Oxford University was more than 16,500, of which, foreign students from more than 130 countries accounted for 1/3, and the number of graduate students at school was about 5,000.

7. Princeton University

Founded in 1746 in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, the school was the fourth higher education college established in the United States during the colonial period. It was called “New Jersey College”, moved to New Jersey in 1747, and moved to the scenic city of Princeton in 1756. Between Philadelphia and New York) and officially renamed “Princeton University” in 1896. Although its old school name was “New Jersey State College,” it has no connection with the “New Jersey State College” in the nearby Ewing Township. It was originally a preschool educational institution, but the school never had a direct connection with any religious institution.

As of 2016, 41 Nobel Prize winners have worked or studied at Princeton University, ranking 13th in the world. Another 10 world top computer award winners of the Turing Award (World No.6) and 14 World Maths Top Award winners have worked or studied at Princeton (World No.4).

In 1930, the Institute for Advanced Studies, which was not affiliated with Princeton University, was established in Princeton and was the first residential college in the country to study scholars. Einstein was one of the first professors in the institute. It can be said that the entire 20th century was a process of scholars, researchers and companies from around the world flowing into Princeton all over the world.

In 1969, Princeton University began enrolling female undergraduate students. In 1887, Princeton had actually opened a sister school named Evelyn Women’s College on the local Evelyn Street and Nassau Street, which was closed approximately 10 years later. After many years, the school decided to recruit girls and was committed to making the school more friendly to women. In April 1969, when Princeton issued an admission notice, these plans had not yet been fully realized. Princeton’s five-year co-education plan allocated US$7.8 million to 650 female students in 1974. Finally, 148 female students, including 100 female freshmen and some other grades of female students, entered the Princeton campus on September 6, 1969, during media attention and review.

As a famous comprehensive private university, Princeton has famous professors and scholars, a donation amount of the top 5 alumni in the United States, a computerized modern library with more than 4.5 million books, a computer center and an art museum. , a church and a considerable number of social and cultural events. The school has a plasma physics experiment

8. Yale University

Yale University, a world-renowned private research university located in New Haven, Connecticut, was originally founded by the Connecticut Congregationalists in 1701 and moved to New Haven, Connecticut in 1716.

Yale’s professor lineup, curriculum, and teaching facilities are world class. As of 2016, Yale professors and alumni won 57 Nobel Prizes (ranked 9th in the world) and 5 Fields Medals (ranked 12th in the world). The Yale University Library has 15 million books and ranks second in the U.S. university library system. The 260 buildings on the Yale campus cover the design styles of various historical periods and were once hailed as one of the most beautiful city campuses in the United States by an architectural critic. In 2016-17, Yale University is ranked 11th in the world in world academic rankings, 12th in the world by Times Higher Education World University, 14th in usnews World University Rankings (US News), and 15th in the world by QS World Universities.

Yale attaches great importance to undergraduate education, so Yale College is the core of Yale’s education, and all professors offer undergraduate courses. Each year, more than 65 departments and programs provide over 2,000 courses for undergraduates, many of which are by Yale’s best historians, literary critics, scientists, engineers, mathematicians, artists, composers, poets. The academic atmosphere is very friendly and active with sociologists. This is unimaginable in research universities that do not pay attention to basic education.

Although Yale respects traditional education very much, it does not set specific curriculum requirements for students, nor does it have a so-called core curriculum. Instead, it is a more relaxed course selection system. Yale requires students to have both depth and breadth of study: depth, that is, students want to study professional courses; there is breadth, that is, students have to perform three areas (ie, humanities, arts, and social sciences) and three skills (writing, quantification). Reasoning, foreign language) learning. Yale offers students 80 classes and 53 foreign language classes.

At Yale, entry-level courses are usually large-scale lectures, and there are some small discussion classes that are taught by graduate students. Some courses have been warmly welcomed by students, such as Professor John Gaddis’s Cold War history, which looks like a performance. High-level seminars are usually small classes and they are numerous. Senior students do not have to worry about not choosing their favorite class. Freshman freshman seminars also give freshmen ample opportunity to communicate with professors. Most of the courses here are very interesting and exciting.

During the first two weeks of the semester, students can go to try different kinds of lessons and finally decide which lessons to attend. Yale requires students to have a moderate level of mastery of a foreign language. Therefore, each student must learn a foreign language for at least one semester. Based on personal learning, determine whether or not one or two additional semesters are needed.

The Freshman Seminars are small classes, some of which are taught by senior Yale professors. Some workshops will give an overview of learning in special areas, and some seminars will explore interdisciplinary research methods for various courses.

“Directed Studies” is a multi-disciplinary project involving freshmen in Western civilization. It includes three courses of literature, philosophy, and historical and political thinking that last for one year. Students can read important Western traditions in class. works. Excellent students with a special interest in liberal arts can request to join the project, but be prepared to have close contact with the book, which is why the project has a horrible nickname called “guided suicide project”.
“Perspectives on Science and Engineering” is a lecture and discussion course for freshmen of science and engineering. The one-year course enables freshmen to explore the topics of science at the same time, and build bridges for newcomers to join the Yale Science Society. . Students who are particularly interested in science can participate in this enhanced project.

“Science and Engineering Undergraduate Research” is a research course. Yale is a world-class research university. Independent scientific research, engineering research and design programs are integral parts of Yale’s undergraduate science education. Yale’s School of Arts and Sciences, School of Medicine, and School of Forest and Environmental Studies have 43 degree-granting projects and more than 800 departmental laboratories. Freshmen of science and engineering can begin their initial scientific research in the first year of school. The annual Freshmen’s Summer Research Fellowship can provide funding for more than 100 science and engineering students.

9, California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology, abbreviated as Caltech, is a world-renowned private research university located in Pasadena, a city in the northeastern suburbs of Los Angeles, California. Caltech has a long-standing reputation in the world of science and technology. Its predominant disciplines include physics, chemistry, astronomy, and space science in basic science. It ranks 5th in the world of ARWU Physics and 4th in Chemical World in 2015-16. In addition, the University of Science and Technology ranks No. 6 in the world and also assists NASA in managing the famous Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

The California Polytechnic School is small in size. The total number of students in the school is only about 2,000. However, 36 Nobel Prize winners have been left out of history. Of these, 20 are graduates (15th in the world), and the Nobel Prize in the world is the highest. University. Therefore, Caltech is also recognized as one of the most typical elite universities. In addition, Caltech was also used as the background of the CBS American drama “The Big Bang.” Caltech ranks No.1 in the world for Thames Higher Education (The) World University for five consecutive years from 2012 to 2016; World No.4 in the world in QS World University in 2018; World No.8 in Academic Ranking of the World (ARWU); No.8 in world rankings in usnews (US News) World No. 5; The world university ranking is ranked second in the world in 2017.

On September 14, 2015, the “LIGO”, which was led by the California Institute of Technology, and was jointly designed and built by the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, detected the existence of gravitational waves for the first time in history. On February 11, 2016, US East Time, David Reitze, director of the LIGO program and professor at the California Institute of Technology, officially announced that they detected the existence of gravitational waves, confirming the predictions of Einstein’s general theory of relativity a hundred years ago and also turning on gravitational waves. A new era of detection.

The California Institute of Technology has been developed since 1891 by a local professional businessman and politician Amos G. Throop founded a professional school in Pasadena. Before the school received the name Caltech in 1920, the school was known as Throop University, Throop Institute of Technology, and Throop Institute of Technology. The power that drove California Tech to become a world-class science center from an arts and crafts school stems from the foresight of astronomer George Ellery Hale. Hale joined Throop’s management board after arriving in Pasadena in 1907 as the first director of the Mount Wilson Observatory. At the time, American scientific research was still in its infancy, and Hale saw the opportunity to create a formal college of engineering and natural science education in Pasadena. Hale’s successful attraction of private land and financial sponsorship enabled him to establish a well-equipped modern laboratory facility for the school. Then he persuaded the experimental physicist Millikan to join the California Institute of Technology, which laid the foundation for the future construction of science and technology as the center of science and technology.

In 1917, Hale hired Bertram Goodhue, an architectural designer, to produce a master plan for a 22-acre campus. Goodhue conceived the campus’s overall layout and designed the Physics Building, Dabney Hall, and other buildings in which he sought consistency with the local climate, school characteristics, and Hale’s philosophy of education. Goodhue’s design for California Institute of Science is also influenced by the architectural structure of the traditional Spanish mission in Southern California.

Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes, and Millikan, (and promoted by the economic boom in southern California), the California Institute of Technology’s reputation in the 1920s has rapidly increased. In 1923, Millikan won the Nobel Prize in physics. In 1925, the school established the Department of Geology and hired William Bennett Munro, chairman of Harvard University’s School of History, Politics, and Economics, to establish the Caltech Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences. In 1928, the Biology Institute was founded under the leadership of Thomas Hunt Morgan, one of America’s finest biologists and one of the discoverers of chromosomes. In 1926, the Graduate School of Aeronautics was founded. It finally attracted Theodore von Kármán, who later contributed to the establishment of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and established Caltech’s position as one of the foremost centers of rocket science. . In 1928, the Palomar Observatory began construction.

Milligan was the “chairman of the executive committee” (corresponding to the president of Caltech) from 1921 to 1945. Its influence was so great that the school was sometimes called the “Micronian school.” In the 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s, Caltech was known for two schools that were likely to be called the greatest theoretical particle physicists of the time: Gelman and Feynman. Both Gellman and Feynman won the Nobel Prize for their work, and this work has contributed primarily to the establishment of the so-called “standard model” for particle physics. Feynman is also famous outside the physical circle as an outstanding teacher and an anti-traditional figure.

10、Cornell University

Cornell University is a world-class private research university located in Ithaca, New York (two other campuses are located in New York City and Qatar Education City) and is a member of the famous Ivy League. Cornell University was founded by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dixon White in 1865. It is the only emerging force in the eight Ivy League schools founded after the American Revolutionary War. It was the largest university in America at the time.

The foundation of Cornell University is that anyone has the equal right to education. It is the first gender equality coeducational university in the Ivy League school. The earliest implementation of admissions is excluding aristocratic status. Beliefs and races, and the establishment of a comprehensive, all-embracing, comprehensive university for the purpose of establishing the school, the school has been hailed as the first truly universal university in the history of the United States. Cornell University is also the only school in Ivy League that uses public-private partnerships. It initially started with a college of agronomy and engineering. Its School of Hotel Management and Institute of Industrial and Labor Relations are the first in the United States. Cornell’s traditional strengths include agriculture, veterinary medicine, engineering, labor relations, liberal arts, economics, architecture, education, business, media, and hotel management.

The pioneering work of Cornell University lies in its unique style of running a school. Its school instruction comes from a letter written by the founder Ezra Cornell to the first principal: “I would have found an institution where any person can find instruction in any Study”, that is, “I want to build a university so that all people can learn any discipline he wants to learn.” With this aim in mind, Cornell University has been working hard to increase the coverage of curriculum development, and it has formed the professional scale of the school today. It has opened more than 4,000 courses. In terms of educational philosophy, it reflects the equal spirit that anyone has the right to education. Cornell University is the first gender equality coeducational university in the Ivy League school. It does not count aristocratic status and can be enrolled regardless of faith and race. In terms of teaching methods, it reflects the work attitude guided by students’ characteristics and interests, and has taken the lead in implementing the free student selection system in the United States. Because of the essence of its motto and the foundation of the school, Cornell University has been regarded as the first truly American university in the history of the United States.